Regulation of the MST1 kinase by autophosphorylation, by the growth inhibitory proteins, RASSF1 and NORE1, and by Ras

Biochem J. 2004 Jul 15;381(Pt 2):453-62. doi: 10.1042/BJ20040025.


MST1 (mammalian Sterile20-like 1) and MST2 are closely related Class II GC (protein Ser/Thr) kinases that initiate apoptosis when transiently overexpressed in mammalian cells. In the present study, we show that recombinant MST1/2 undergo a robust autoactivation in vitro, mediated by an intramolecular autophosphorylation of a single site [MST1(Thr183)/MST2(Thr180)] on the activation loop of an MST dimer. Endogenous full-length MST1 is activated by a variety of stressful stimuli, accompanied by the secondary appearance of a 36 kDa Thr183-phosphorylated, caspase-cleaved catalytic fragment. Recombinant MST1 exhibits only 2-5% activation during transient expression; endogenous MST1 in the cycling HeLa or KB cells has a similar low fractional activation, but 2 h incubation with okadaic acid (1 mM) results in 100% activation. Endogenous MST1 immunoprecipitated from KB cells is specifically associated with substoichiometric amounts of the growth inhibitory polypeptides RASSF1A and NORE1A (novel Ras effector 1A; a Ras-GTP-binding protein). Co-expression of RASSF1A, RASSF1C, NORE1A and NORE1B with MST1 markedly suppresses MST1(Thr183) phosphorylation in vivo and abolishes the ability of MST1 to undergo Mg-ATP-mediated autoactivation in vitro; direct addition of purified NORE1A in vitro also inhibits MST1 activation. In contrast, co-transfection of MST1 with NORE1A modified by the addition of a C-terminal CAAX motif results in a substantial increase in MST1(Thr183) phosphorylation, as does fusion of a myristoylation motif directly on to the MST1 N-terminus. Moreover, MST1 polypeptides, bound via wild-type NORE1A to Ras(G12V) (where G12V stands for Gly12Val), exhibit higher Thr183 phosphorylation compared with MST1 bound to NORE1A alone. Nevertheless, serum stimulation of KB cells does not detectably increase the activation state of endogenous MST1 or MST2 despite promoting the recruitment of the endogenous NORE1-MST1 complex to endogenous Ras. We propose that the NORE1/RASSF1 polypeptides, in addition to their role in maintaining the low activity of MST1 in vivo, direct MST1 to sites of activation and perhaps co-localization with endogenous substrates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • COS Cells / enzymology
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Growth Inhibitors / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Kidney / cytology
  • Kidney / embryology
  • Kidney / enzymology
  • Membrane Proteins / physiology*
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / physiology*
  • Serine-Threonine Kinase 3
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology*


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Growth Inhibitors
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • RASSF1 protein, human
  • RASSF5 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • growth inhibitory proteins
  • STK4 protein, human
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • STK3 protein, human
  • Serine-Threonine Kinase 3
  • HRAS protein, human
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)