T1/ST2--an IL-1 receptor-like modulator of immune responses

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. Apr-Jun 2004;15(2-3):87-95. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2004.02.004.


Th2-associated factors such as IL-4 are involved in both the development of Th2 responses (via modulating Th2 cell differentiation) and in the effector phase of Th2 responses (via modulating macrophage activation). The IL-1 receptor-like protein ST2 (T1, Fit-1, or DER4) is expressed as a membrane-bound (ST2L) or secreted form (sST2), and has been clearly implicated as a regulator of both the development and effector phases of Th2-type responses. Here we analyze the mechanisms and therapeutic implications of the unique ability of ST2 to promote development and function of type 2 helper T cells through a positive feedback loop, as well as to act as a negative feedback modulator of macrophage pro-inflammatory function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Down-Regulation
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / physiology*
  • Membrane Proteins / immunology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Signal Transduction
  • Th2 Cells / immunology*


  • IL1RL1 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface