It's green outside: tracking cell surface proteins with pH-sensitive GFP

Trends Neurosci. 2004 May;27(5):257-61. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2004.03.010.


Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mutated GFP variants have proved to be immensely powerful tools that have had a profound impact on research in biological sciences. This review considers the development, use and future implications of pH-dependent GFP variants (e.g. pHluorins). These proteins hold considerable promise for the relatively non-invasive monitoring of events such as exocytosis, endocytosis and protein surface expression in living neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Physiological Phenomena
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration*
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mutation
  • Protein Transport / physiology


  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins