A sodium-rich carbonated mineral water reduces cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women

J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1058-63. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.5.1058.


This study was designed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of consuming a sodium-rich carbonated mineral water on lipoprotein metabolism and to determine whether consumption of this water influences endothelial dysfunction (ED) in postmenopausal women. Women included in the study were amenorrheic (>1 y), healthy, and not obese (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)). The subjects did not take estrogen replacement therapy; supplements of vitamins, minerals, and phytoestrogens; or other medications known to affect bone and lipid metabolism. The study consisted of 2 intervention periods of 2 mo each, during which women drank 1 L/d of a control mineral water (low mineral content) for 2 mo followed by the carbonated mineral water, rich in sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride, for 2 mo. Body weight, height, and blood pressure were measured, and BMI was calculated. Blood samples were taken from fasting subjects and serum was analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and glucose. Blood pressure levels did not change throughout the study. Carbonated water intake decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels by 6.8% (P = 0.001) and 14.8% (P < 0.0001), respectively, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration increased by 8.7% (P = 0.018), compared to the control period. Therefore, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indexes (total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol) were markedly reduced (both P < 0.0001). Soluble ICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels decreased by 8.4% (P = 0.007) and 14.8% (P = 0.015), respectively. Fasting serum glucose concentration decreased by 6.7% (P < 0.0001). Triacylglycerol levels did not change. Consumption of this sodium rich carbonated water can play a beneficial role in the prevention of CVD and the metabolic syndrome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Carbonated Beverages*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / blood
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Lipoproteins / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Mineral Waters / administration & dosage*
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Postmenopause*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sodium / analysis*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Lipids
  • Lipoproteins
  • Mineral Waters
  • Sodium