Human dental pulp cells were cultured in fluoride containing medium of various concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 80 ppm) in order to study the biological effect on the cells' proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. It was found that fluoride at 5 ppm concentration significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ALP activity between 24 and 48 hours after exposure whereas at higher concentrations (40 - 80 ppm), fluoride significantly inhibited cell growth and ALP activity after 48 hours (Student's t test). The maximum effect was around 80 ppm. These observations suggest that fluoride, if used at a low concentration, may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of pulpal disease by means of stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp cells. At higher concentrations, it will have negative effects on this kind of cell.