Inhibition of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex reduces coagulation and inflammation in animal models of endotoxemia and sepsis and in patients with severe sepsis. However, the mechanism by which tissue factor-dependent activation of the coagulation cascade enhances inflammation is not known. We tested the hypothesis that coagulation proteases enhance inflammation during endotoxemia by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs) within the vasculature. We found that genetically modified mice expressing low levels of tissue factor exhibited reduced interleukin-6 expression and increased survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia compared with control mice. In contrast, hirudin inhibition of thrombin or a deficiency in either PAR-1 or PAR-2 did not affect interleukin-6 expression or mortality. However, combining hirudin treatment to inhibit thrombin signaling through PAR-1 and PAR-4 with PAR-2 deficiency reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-6 expression and increased survival. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of multiple PARs by coagulation proteases enhances inflammation during endotoxemia.