Vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS infection and disease. Part 1: determinants operating at individual and household level

Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 May;4(5):267-77. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01002-3.


A high burden of malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection contributes to national and individual poverty. We have reviewed a broad range of evidence detailing factors at individual, household, and community levels that influence vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection and used this evidence to identify strategies that could improve resilience to these diseases. This first part of the review explores the concept of vulnerability to infectious diseases and examines how age, sex, and genetics can influence the biological response to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection. We highlight factors that influence processes such as poverty, livelihoods, gender discrepancies, and knowledge acquisition and provide examples of how approaches to altering these processes may have a simultaneous effect on all three diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Communicable Disease Control
  • Communicable Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Communicable Diseases / etiology*
  • Global Health
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / etiology
  • Humans
  • Malaria / epidemiology
  • Malaria / etiology
  • Poverty
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis / etiology