Hyperuricemia (HU) is present in 5-30% of the general population, although the prevalence is higher among some ethnic groups and seems to be increasing worldwide. Classically, chronic HU has been considered a risk factor for gout or lithiasis and is associated with alcoholism, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia/diabetes mellitus, renal failure and intake of certain drugs. HU is also associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, vascular disease, pre-eclampsia, pulmonary arterial hypertension, stroke, heart failure, ischemic heart disease and also metabolic syndrome, renal disease and increased mortality. It is uncertain if these associations are dependent or not, especially cardiovascular and renal diseases. Patients with chronic HU and also those with gout require both medical investigation for associated diseases or drugs as well as nutritional counseling and life-style changes. HU should alert physicians to possible complications.