The importance of biomechanical factors in musculoskeletal disease may be appreciated in the clinical characteristics and pathophysiology of joint degeneration in osteoarthritis. The biomechanical characteristics of the neuromuscular system are integral in determining the function and stability of the synovial joint and in mediating the biochemical structure of articular cartilage. Alterations in the neuromuscular system including abnormal gait and dynamic joint loading patterns as well as muscle strength and proprioception deficits have been independently studied and associated with osteoarthritis. These factors have close functional and physiological interactions. Nevertheless, specific relations between muscle strength and proprioception and their independent contributions to dynamic joint loading are not yet clear. Targeted interventions to moderate these factors may, in the future, be a therapeutic option for the management of osteoarthritis.