Aberrant CpG island hypermethylation of multiple genes in colorectal neoplasia

Lab Invest. 2004 Jul;84(7):884-93. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.3700108.


CpG island hypermethylation is a potential means of inactivating tumor suppressor genes, and many genes have been demonstrated to be hypermethylated and silenced in colorectal cancer. However, limited data is available upon the concurrent methylation of multiple genes in colorectal cancer and in its precursor lesion. To address changes in the methylation profiles of multiple genes during colorectal carcinogenesis, we investigated the methylation of 12 genes (APC, COX-2, DAP-kinase, E-cadherin, GSTP1, hMLH1, MGMT, p14, p16, RASSF1A, THBS1, and TIMP3) in normal colon (n=24), colon adenoma (n=95), and colorectal cancer (n=149), using methylation-specific PCR. The average number of these genes methylated per sample was 0.12, 1.8, and 3.0 in normal colon mucosa, adenoma, and carcinoma, respectively, showing a stepwise increase (P<0.001). All the genes were methylated in colorectal cancer at frequencies varying from 51 to 9.4% and colon adenoma displayed methylation for the 11 genes, except for GSTP1, at frequencies varying from 40 to 1.1%. In contrast, normal colon mucosa demonstrated methylation for APC only, at a frequency of 12.5%. The total number of methylated genes per tumor showed a continuous, nonbimodal distribution in colon adenoma or cancer. CpG island hypermethylation exhibited a proclivity toward proximal colon cancer or adenoma, and the average number of genes methylated was higher in proximal colon cancer or adenoma than in distal colon cancer or adenoma, respectively (3.5 vs 2.6, P=0.018 for cancer, and 2.5 vs 1.4, P=0.003 for adenoma). In conclusion, concurrent CpG island methylation is an early and frequent event during colorectal carcinogenesis. It appears that CpG island methylation plays a more important role in proximal colon cancer development than in distal colon cancer development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma / genetics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • CpG Islands*
  • DNA Methylation*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction