Previous studies of families with multiple cases of breast cancer have indicated that a frameshift alteration in the CHEK2 gene, 1100delC, is associated with an elevated frequency of breast cancer in such families, but the risk associated with the variant in other situations is uncertain. To evaluate the breast cancer risk associated with this variant, 10,860 breast cancer cases and 9,065 controls from 10 case-control studies in five countries were genotyped. CHEK2*1100delC was found in 201 cases (1.9%) and 64 controls (0.7%) (estimated odds ratio 2.34; 95% CI 1.72-3.20; P=.0000001). There was some evidence of a higher prevalence of CHEK2*1100delC among cases with a first-degree relative affected with breast cancer (odds ratio 1.44; 95% CI 0.93-2.23; P=.10) and of a trend for a higher breast cancer odds ratio at younger ages at diagnosis (P=.002). These results confirm that CHEK2*1100delC confers an increased risk of breast cancer and that this risk is apparent in women unselected for family history. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that CHEK2*1100delC multiplies the risks associated with susceptibility alleles in other genes to increase the risk of breast cancer.