We investigated the effect of galvanic skin response (GSR) biofeedback training on seizure frequency in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Eighteen patients with drug-refractory epilepsy were randomly assigned either to an active GSR biofeedback group (n = 10) or to a sham control biofeedback group (n = 8). Biofeedback training significantly reduced seizure frequency in the active biofeedback group (P = 0.017), but not the control group (P > 0.10). This was manifest as a significant between-group difference in seizure reduction (P 0.01). Furthermore, there was a correlation between degree of improvement in biofeedback performance and reduction of seizure frequency (rho = 0.736, P = 0.001), confirming that the effect of biofeedback treatment was related to physiological change. Our findings highlight the potential therapeutic value of GSR biofeedback in reducing seizure frequency in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.