Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating acute seizures in children

Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Apr;5(2):253-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.01.003.


Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine, is usually given intravenously in status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to determine whether intranasal midazolam is as safe and effective as intravenous diazepam in the treatment of acute childhood seizures. Seventy children aged 2 months to 15 years with acute seizures (febrile or afebrile) admitted to the pediatric emergency department of a general hospital during a 14-month period were eligible for inclusion. Intranasal midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and intravenous diazepam 0.2 mg/kg were administered after intravenous lines were established. Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. The mean time to control of seizures was 3.58 (SD 1.68) minutes in the midazolam group and 2.94 (SD 2.62) in the diazepam group, not counting the time required to insert the intravenous line. No significant side effects were observed in either group. Although intranasal midazolam was as safe and effective as diazepam, seizures were controlled more quickly with intravenous diazepam than with intranasal midazolam. Intranasal midazolam can possibly be used not only in medical centers, but also in general practice and at home after appropriate instructions are given to families of children with recurrent seizures.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adolescent
  • Anticonvulsants / administration & dosage*
  • Anticonvulsants / adverse effects
  • Benzodiazepines / administration & dosage*
  • Benzodiazepines / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diazepam / administration & dosage*
  • Diazepam / adverse effects
  • Electroencephalography / drug effects
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Midazolam / administration & dosage*
  • Midazolam / adverse effects
  • Status Epilepticus / drug therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Diazepam
  • Midazolam