Secretogranin III (SgIII), a member of the granin protein family, is expressed specifically in neuronal and endocrine cells. To examine the precise localization of SgIII in the endocrine pancreas, pancreatic tissues of rats were analyzed immunocytochemically with a polyclonal anti-serum raised against rat SgIII. By light microscopy of semithin sections, the immunoreactivity for SgIII was readily detected in pancreatic A- and B-cells, faintly so in D-cells, and not at all in the exocrine pancreas. By immunoelectron microscopy, immunogold particles indicative of SgIII were observed in the peripheral regions of secretory granules, and universally in the pancreatic endocrine cells. Morphometrical analyses indicated that SgIII is most preferentially localized in the periphery of the secretory granule among granins. These findings suggest that SgIII is closely associated with the secretory granule membrane, serving to anchor the aggregates of other soluble constituents to the membrane.