To characterize the epidemiology and prognostic factors of invasive fusariosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, the records of HSCT recipients from 9 hospitals (7 in Brazil and 2 in the United States) were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-one cases were identified: 54 in allogeneic HSCT recipients and 7 in autologous HSCT recipients. The incidence of fusariosis among allogeneic HSCT recipients varied between a range of 4.21-5.0 cases per 1000 in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)--matched related transplant recipients to 20.19 cases per 1000 in HLA-mismatched transplant recipients. The median time period between transplantation and diagnosis of fusariosis was 48 days. Among allogeneic HSCT recipients, a trimodal distribution was observed: a first peak before engraftment, a second peak at a median of 62 days after transplantation, and a third peak >1 year after transplantation. The actuarial survival was 13% (median, 13 days). Persistent neutropenia was the single prognostic factor for death identified by multivariate analysis.