Although West Nile fever is mild in the vast majority of infected persons, there is growing evidence that the disease may be more severe in the immunocompromised population. We describe 3 recipients of kidney or pancreas transplants who developed West Nile fever, 2 of whom had meningoencephalitis. As is the norm when treating serious infections in transplant recipients, a reduction of immunosuppression was pursued for these patients. Despite the severe nature of the disease in 2 patients, all recovered from the disease. The time course of neurologic recovery in the 2 patients with meningoencephalitis is highlighted. We also review the literature on West Nile fever in organ transplant recipients. In areas where West Nile virus is endemic, one must have a high index of suspicion for the illness when dealing with fever in transplant recipients.