Because the contribution of residual renal function (RRF) to total solute clearance is often significant in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), loss of RRF over time can lead to inadequate dialysis if appropriate prescription management strategies are not pursued. Additionally, declines in ultrafiltration caused by increases in peritoneal permeability may limit continuation of CAPD therapy. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis (PD + HD) combination therapy (complementary dialysis therapy) is an alternative method. This therapy allows the patient to maintain daily activities, as with CAPD, while undergoing once-a-week HD supplements for the insufficient removal of solutes and water. This therapy allows for the continuation of PD without shifting to total HD in PD patients who continue to have uremic symptoms even after individualization of the PD prescription. This treatment option is psychologically more acceptable to patients and may be expected to provide such accompanying beneficial effects as peritoneal resting, improvement of QOL and reduction in medical cost.