This paper is part of a series that has the goal of identifying potential approaches toward developing new instruments for assessing tobacco dependence among adolescents. The fundamental assumption underlying the series is that contemporary theories of drug dependence offer a rich source of opportunities for the development of theoretically based assessment tools. The present paper focuses on cognitive and social-learning models of drug dependence and the implications of these models for novel assessment instruments. In particular, the paper focuses on Mark Goldman's model of drug expectancies, Albert Bandura's model of self-efficacy, Thomas Wills's model of stress and coping and Stephen Tiffany's cognitive-processing model of drug urges and cravings. In addition to traditional self-report measures, naturalistic and laboratory-based assessments are identified that may yield information relevant to multi-dimensional measurement of tobacco dependence.