A realistic 3-D gated cardiac phantom for quality control of gated myocardial perfusion SPET: the Amsterdam gated (AGATE) cardiac phantom

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004 Feb;31(2):222-8. doi: 10.1007/s00259-003-1352-5.


A realistic 3-D gated cardiac phantom with known left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fractions (EFs) was produced to evaluate quantitative measurements obtained from gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The 3-D gated cardiac phantom was designed and constructed to fit into the Data Spectrum anthropomorphic torso phantom. Flexible silicone membranes form the inner and outer walls of the simulated left ventricle. Simulated LV volumes can be varied within the range 45-200 ml. The LV volume curve has a smooth and realistic clinical shape that is produced by a specially shaped cam connected to a piston. A fixed 70-ml stroke volume is applied for EF measurements. An ECG signal is produced at maximum LV filling by a controller unit connected to the pump. This gated cardiac phantom will be referred to as the Amsterdam 3-D gated cardiac phantom, or, in short, the AGATE cardiac phantom. SPET data were acquired with a triple-head SPET system. Data were reconstructed using filtered back-projection following pre-filtering and further processed with the Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) software to determine LV volume and EF values. Ungated studies were performed to measure LV volumes ranging from 45 ml to 200 ml. The QGS-determined LV volumes were systematically underestimated. For different LV combinations, the stroke volumes measured were consistent at 60-61 ml for 8-frame studies and 63-65 ml for 16-frame studies. QGS-determined EF values were slightly overestimated between 1.25% EF units for 8-frame studies and 3.25% EF units for 16-frame studies. In conclusion, the AGATE cardiac phantom offers possibilities for quality control, testing and validation of the whole gated cardiac SPET sequence, and testing of different acquisition and processing parameters and software.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis*
  • Gated Blood-Pool Imaging / instrumentation*
  • Gated Blood-Pool Imaging / methods
  • Gated Blood-Pool Imaging / standards
  • Heart / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / instrumentation*
  • Netherlands
  • Phantoms, Imaging*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Stroke Volume
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / instrumentation*
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / standards