Efficacy of resistance exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004 Apr;13(3):293-300. doi: 10.1089/154099904323016455.

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are major public health problems. The purpose of this study was to conduct an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of resistance exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women.

Methods: Studies were retrieved via (1). computerized literature searches, (2). review of reference lists from previous studies, (3). hand searching selected journals, and (4). expert review of the reference list. Two x two analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests with repeated measures on one factor (time) and study as a covariate were used to analyze changes in BMD.

Results: One hundred forty-three subjects (74 exercise, 69 control) were included in the analysis. Changes in lumbar spine BMD averaged 0.006 +/- 0.035 g/cm(2) (0.64 +/- 2.99%) in the exercise group and 0.008 +/- 0.091 g/cm(2) (0.74 +/- 7.58%) in the control group, and changes in femoral neck BMD averaged 0.005 +/- 0.031 g/cm(2) (0.46 +/- 3.10%) in the exercise group and 0.003 +/- 0.031 g/cm(2) (0.31 +/- 2.97%) in the control group. No statistically significant differences in lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD were found within or between the exercise and control groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Based on existing evidence, our results do not support the efficacy of resistance exercise for increasing or maintaining lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in premenopausal women.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aging / physiology
  • Bone Density*
  • Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Exercise* / physiology
  • Female
  • Femur Neck* / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae* / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal* / physiology
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control*
  • Physical Fitness
  • Premenopause
  • Time Factors