Analysis of premature centromere division (PCD) of the X chromosome in Alzheimer patients through the cell cycle

Exp Gerontol. 2004 May;39(5):849-54. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2004.01.012.


Cytogenetic analysis of the X chromosome in phytohaemagglutinin stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated in 12 sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and in 11 healthy subjects. For chromosome analysis two methods were used: (1) standard analysis of G-banded metaphase chromosomes and; (2) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of the X chromosome centromeric region in interphase nuclei. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that the X chromosome expresses premature centromere division (PCD) in AD females in 10.53% of metaphase cells and in 15.22% of interphase nuclei. In AD men the percentages were 3.98 and 6.06%, respectively. X chromosome PCD in the female control group showed a percentage of 7.46% in metaphase cells and 9.35% in interphase nuclei and in male controls the percentages were 2.84% in metaphases and 5.54% in interphase nuclei. The results of FISH analysis showed that PCD could occur much earlier than metaphase of mitosis, i.e. in interphase of the cell cycle, immediately after replication. The FISH method can be used for PCD verification in all phases of the cell cycle in various disorders including AD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics*
  • Cell Cycle / genetics*
  • Centromere / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods
  • Interphase / genetics
  • Lymphocytes / physiology
  • Male
  • Metaphase / genetics
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitosis / genetics
  • Sex Factors