A method was developed to obtain rapid endothelialization of a fabric vascular prosthesis by seeding autologous venous tissue fragments into its wall. In an animal study, complete endothelialization was observed in the entire inner surface of the prosthesis within 2 weeks after implantation. A piece of peripheral vein was minced with scissors and then stirred into saline to create a tissue suspension. This suspension was enmeshed into the wall of a highly porous fabric vascular prosthesis by repeated pressurized injections with a syringe. The prostheses (7 mm inside diameter and 5.7 cm in length), seeded with tissue fragments, were implanted into the descending thoracic aorta of 25 dogs, and they were removed from 1 hour to 2 months after implantation. Twenty-five prostheses, preclotted with fresh blood, were used as control prostheses. In the seeded graft, a thin fibrin layer covered the inner surface just after implantation, but countless numbers of endothelial cells migrated from the fragments and came up to the luminal surface like multiple "mushrooms" under the fibrin layer. Smooth muscle cells made multiple layers underneath the endothelial cell layer. The healing proceeded equally at every part. By this active migration and proliferation, the inner surface was completely healed within 2 weeks.