Background & aims: Cysts of the pancreas display a wide spectrum of histology, including inflammatory (pseudocysts), benign (serous), premalignant (mucinous), and malignant (mucinous) lesions. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) may offer a diagnostic tool through the combination of imaging and guided, fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the most accurate test for differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous cystic lesions.
Methods: The results of EUS imaging, cyst fluid cytology, and cyst fluid tumor markers (CEA, CA 72-4, CA 125, CA 19-9, and CA 15-3) were prospectively collected and compared in a multicenter study using histology as the final diagnostic standard.
Results: Three hundred forty-one (341) patients underwent EUS and FNA of a pancreatic cystic lesion; 112 of these patients underwent surgical resection, providing a histologic diagnosis of the cystic lesion (68 mucinous, 7 serous, 27 inflammatory, 5 endocrine, and 5 other). Receiver operator curve analysis of the tumor markers demonstrated that cyst fluid CEA (optimal cutoff of 192 ng/mL) demonstrated the greatest area under the curve (0.79) for differentiating mucinous vs. nonmucinous cystic lesions. The accuracy of CEA (88 of 111, 79%) was significantly greater than the accuracy of EUS morphology (57 of 112, 51%) or cytology (64 of 109, 59%) (P < 0.05). There was no combination of tests that provided greater accuracy than CEA alone (P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Of tested markers, cyst fluid CEA is the most accurate test available for the diagnosis of mucinous cystic lesions of the pancreas.