Emerging paradigms of T-cell co-stimulation

Curr Opin Immunol. 2004 Jun;16(3):321-7. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2004.03.002.


The analysis of recent data reveals that T-cell co-stimulation is a hierarchical process with elements of mutual interdependence between individual co-stimulators. The expression and function of co-stimulatory molecules is biased on various T-cell subsets and is dependent on the T-cell differentiation state. The classical paradigm of T-cell co-stimulation by professional antigen-presenting cells has to incorporate the newly recognized concept of T-cell co-stimulation in the interaction with peripheral tissues, such as endothelial or epithelial cells. The two signal paradigm of T-cell co-stimulation is being replaced by a multisignal integration concept of central and peripheral co-stimulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology*
  • Antigens, Surface / immunology
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*


  • Antigens, Surface
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell