Allometric principles for interspecies extrapolation in toxicological risk assessment--empirical investigations

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 Jun;39(3):334-47. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2004.03.001.


Four types of data (toxicokinetic data of pharmaceuticals from six species including humans, LD(50) values from eight animal species, long-term NOAEL values of pesticides from mice, rats, and dogs, and toxicity data on anti-neoplastic agents from six species including humans) were used for interspecies comparisons. Species differences with regard to kinetic parameters and toxicity were evaluated and the concordance with predictions by allometric scaling according to caloric demand (allometric exponent 0.75) or to body weight (allometric exponent 1) was checked. For LD(50) values, agreement was poor for both allometric concepts. Recently reported concordance of LD(50) species differences with body weight scaling could be traced back to biased data selection. The other three datasets are clearly in agreement with the allometric scaling according to caloric demand. Caloric demand scaling is thus proposed as a generic interspecies extrapolation method in the absence of substance-specific data. Moreover, the evaluated data make it possible to describe uncertainty associated with the process of interspecies extrapolation by allometric rules.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity*
  • Body Weight
  • Cats
  • Cricetinae
  • Dogs
  • Energy Intake
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Haplorhini
  • Humans
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
  • Pesticides / pharmacokinetics
  • Pesticides / toxicity*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Species Specificity
  • Toxicity Tests, Acute
  • Toxicity Tests, Chronic


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Pesticides