Although Candida vulvovaginitis occurs commonly, the reasons for its occurrence and recurrence are often unclear. Several potential risk factors have been described, including the recent use of antibiotics and oral contraceptives, the presence of diabetes mellitus, dietary practices, gastrointestinal colonization by the organism, clothing and sanitary protection practices, sexual communicability of the organism, and specific immunological defects. However, the data supporting each of these factors are conflicting, and to date none are predictive of infection. In this review, the data evaluating these potential risk factors are described. From this information, implications for clinical practice are discussed.