A prospective, pilot trial was started to evaluate the effect of a sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen on acute and chronic rejection in de novo lung transplant patients. Primary lung transplant (LTx) recipients received a sirolimus- and tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy immediately after transplantation. Both immunosuppressants were administered with trough level adjusted, while steroid administration was minimized. Four patients were enrolled (2 single-lung transplants, 1 double-lung transplant, 1 heart-lung transplant) in the study. Mean ischemia time was 387 +/- 92 minutes. Acute rejection (at least Grade A1 ISHLT) was detected in 1 patient. Incidence of infection was 0.6 infection per 100 patient-days (3 Aspergillus infections). Until hospital discharge mean sirolimus trough level was 6.2 +/- 1.2 ng/ml. Depending upon mean sirolimus trough levels of each patient, severe wound-healing complications were seen in 3 patients, resulting in bronchial airway dehiscence in 2 patients with lethal outcome in 1 patient. As a result of these complications, we revised the study design after inclusion of only 4 patients: Sirolimus administration is now started after completion of bronchial wound-healing. Sirolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy administered immediately after lung transplantation seems to be associated with severe wound-healing complications of the bronchial anastomosis.