Twenty macrolide and/or lincosamide resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates from various sources with 50S ribosomal mutations were identified. Mutations were identified in the 23S rDNA with substitutions at A2058, A2059, or C2611 and in L4 or L22 ribosomal protein genes. Fourteen were A2059G substitutions, one was A2058G, two were C2611T, two had an altered L4 and one isolate contained an altered L22 gene. Susceptibility testing with erythromycin, josamycin, clindamycin, and two ketolides including cethromycin was performed. The L4 mutants had the amino acid changes of (69)GTG(71) to (69)TPS(71). The isolate with the L22 mutation contained an 18 base pair tandem duplication/insertion at the 3' end of the gene. 50s ribosomal mutations are the least frequent mechanism of S. pneumoniae resistance, occurring at an extremely low frequency and are identified only by genome sequence data.