FoxOs at the crossroads of cellular metabolism, differentiation, and transformation

Cell. 2004 May 14;117(4):421-6. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(04)00452-0.


Forkhead transcription factors of the FoxO subfamily are emerging as a shared component among pathways regulating diverse cellular functions, such as differentiation, metabolism, proliferation, and survival. Their transcriptional output is controlled via a two-tiered mechanism of phosphorylation and acetylation. Modest alterations of this balance can result in profound effects. The gamut of phenotypes runs from protection against diabetes and predisposition to neoplasia, conferred by FoxO loss of function, to increased cellular survival and a marked catabolic response associated with gain of function.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Survival / genetics
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Energy Metabolism / genetics*
  • Genes, Lethal / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors