Galanthamine from snowdrop--the development of a modern drug against Alzheimer's disease from local Caucasian knowledge

J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun;92(2-3):147-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.012.


In recent years, galanthamine isolated from several members of the Amaryllidaceae (Leucojum spp., Narcissus species, Galanthus spp.) has become an important therapeutic options used to slow down the process of neurological degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. This review traces aspects of the history of its development from little known observational studies in the Caucasus Mountains (Southern Russia), to the use of this drug in Eastern European countries (esp. Bulgaria) in the treatment of poliomyelitis and ultimately to the recent introduction onto Western markets in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Of note, little is known about the early history of the drug's development and the review also points to other gaps in our knowledge about the ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and clinical use of galanthamine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy*
  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Galantamine / isolation & purification
  • Galantamine / pharmacokinetics
  • Galantamine / therapeutic use*
  • Galanthus / chemistry*
  • Georgia (Republic)
  • Humans
  • Nootropic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Nootropic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Nootropic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  • Nootropic Agents
  • Galantamine