BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis and the parasitic parameters and antibody response during the acute and chronic phases of infection were analyzed. Following administration of six third-stage larvae (L3), there was no significant difference in the mean worm recovery or mean larval output. Coinciding with the maturation of worms in infected animals and with the egg output in mesenteric arteries, a strong increase in the humoral immune response was observed in both mouse strains. This response was characterized by a hypergammaglobulinemia, with a predominance of IgA and IgG1 during the acute phase of infection, and IgG1 and total IgE during the patent and post-patent periods. Significantly higher levels of IgM, IgG and IgG1 were found in BALB/c mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. On the other hand, a significantly higher concentration of IgA was detected at 6 and 7 weeks post-infection in C57BL/6 mice compared with BALB/c mice. Specific IgE could not be detected in any of the mouse strains. Our results suggest that immunoglobulins, mainly IgG1, contribute to the outcome of a primary A. costaricensis infection with respect to the period of patency and to mortality during the chronic phase.