In humans, metabolism of the commonly used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug diclofenac 1 yields principally the 4'-hydroxy 2, 5-hydroxy 3, and acyl glucuronide 4 metabolites. All three metabolites have been implicated in rare idiosyncratic adverse reactions associated with this widely used drug. Therefore, for mechanistic toxicological studies of 1, substantial quantities of 2-4 are required and their syntheses and characterization are described here. Key steps were a convenient two-step preparation of aniline 5 from phenol, efficient and selective 6-iodination of amide 18, and high-yielding Ullmann couplings to generate diarylamines 11 and 21. The acyl glucuronide 4 was obtained by Mitsunobu reaction of 1 (free acid) with allyl glucuronate 23 followed by Pd(0) deprotection, using a modification of a published procedure. We report full characterization of 4 and note that this important metabolite has been made available pure and in quantity for the first time. We report also the metabolic fates of the synthetic metabolites: 2 and 3 were glucuronidated in rats, but only 3 formed glutathione adducts in vivo and by enzymatic synthesis via a quinoneimine intermediate. A previously undescribed glutathione adduct of 3 was obtained by enzymatic synthesis. Compound 4 formed an imine-linked protein conjugate as evinced by sodium cyanoborohydride trapping.