Measuring grip strength in normal adults: reference ranges and a comparison of electronic and hydraulic instruments

J Hand Surg Am. 2004 May;29(3):514-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2004.01.012.


Purpose: To determine reference ranges for peak, average, and final adult grip strength over 10 seconds by using an electronic dynamometer, and to compare results from hydraulic and electronic dynamometers.

Methods: The hand-grip strengths of 476 healthy adult subjects were tested using the electronic (Grippit; AB Detektor, Goteborg, Sweden) and hydraulic (Jamar; Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN) dynamometers.

Results: Age- and gender-specific reference ranges for the Jamar and Grippit dynamometers are presented. Bland-Altman analysis of the differences between the results obtained using the 2 instruments revealed a bias (mean difference) of 22 N (Jamar - Grippit) and limits of agreement of -86 to 129 N (mean +/- 2 SD), which indicates that grip measurements may vary by up to 215 N between instruments.

Conclusions: The study yielded population reference ranges of peak, average, and final strength over a 10-second grip assessment using an electronic dynamometer. Results from the Grippit and Jamar dynamometers are similar; however, the dynamometers cannot be interchanged. The Grippit provides information about endurance and fatigue of grip over 10 seconds, showing differences between right- and left-dominant adults.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Hand Strength / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Orthopedic Equipment*
  • Reference Values