Objective: Smoking has received little consideration as a risk factor for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in women, despite recent significant findings in men and gender differences in HL incidence. We investigated the association of HL with lifetime cigarette smoking and household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in women.
Methods: In data from a population-based case-control study in women ages 19-79, we analyzed HL risk associated with self-reported smoking and household ETS exposure in 312 diagnostically re-reviewed cases and 325 random-digit dialing controls using logistic regression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) presence was determined in tumors of 269 cases.
Results: In 253 cases compared to 254 controls ages 19-44, risks of HL overall, and of nodular sclerosis and EBV-negative HL, were increased 50% with ETS exposure in childhood; for 11 cases of mixed cellularity (MC) HL, current smoking and adult ETS exposure also increased risk; for 24 cases of EBV-positive HL, risk was elevated for current smoking, greater smoking intensity and duration, and ETS exposure. In 59 cases and 71 controls ages 45-79, most smoking characteristics did not appear to affect risk.
Conclusions: Apparent effects of current smoking on risks of MC HL and EBV-positive HL and of household ETS on risk of all HL in young adult females may broaden the evidence implicating tobacco smoke exposures in HL etiology.