Posterior cranial fossa single-hole arteriovenous fistulae in children: 14 consecutive cases

Neuroradiology. 2004 Jun;46(6):474-81. doi: 10.1007/s00234-004-1176-4. Epub 2004 May 13.


We report 14 consecutive children with 23 posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF); six had multifocal lesions, involving the supratentorial brain in three and the spinal cord in one. There were two boys and four girls with a family history compatible with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. The diagnosis was made in infancy in eight cases and in a further six before the age of 12 years; mean age at diagnosis was 3.5 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1. Presenting features were macrocrania in four cases, haemorrhage or headache in three and nonhaemorrhagic neurological deficits or and cardiac overload in two. Dominant supply to the symptomatic fistula arose from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery in five cases, anterior inferior cerebellar artery in two and the upper basilar artery system in seven. All children were primarily treated by transarterial embolisation. We treated thirteen children (93%) by transarterial embolisation alone; one older child with a history of haemorrhage also underwent radiosurgery. We obtained 100% exclusion of the fistula(e) in six children, 95-80% in five, 80-50% in one and <50% in one. Of the incompletely treated cases, three had conservative management, and two with 80% and one with 60% reduction of their lesion are scheduled for elective treatment; two partially treated case died. There was no morbidity due to the endovascular procedures. Follow-up since referral is 6 months-10 years (mean 4.5 years). Ten children are neurologically normal, two have persistent (pre-existing) neurological deficits and two are dead.

MeSH terms

  • Arteriovenous Fistula* / diagnosis
  • Arteriovenous Fistula* / epidemiology
  • Arteriovenous Fistula* / therapy
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cranial Fossa, Posterior
  • Embolization, Therapeutic
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations* / diagnosis
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations* / epidemiology
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations* / therapy
  • Male
  • Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic / diagnosis
  • Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic / epidemiology