Phenotypic and genotypic studies revealed new tools for differentiating Burkholderia cepacia genomovar VI from Burkholderia multivorans and other B. cepacia-complex species. Hence, the name Burkholderia dolosa sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 18943(T) (=CCUG 47727(T)) as the type strain. B. dolosa can be differentiated from other B. cepacia-complex bacteria by its inability to assimilate tryptamine, azelaic acid and salicin and by its failure to grow on the B. cepacia-selective medium PCAT. Both 16S rDNA and recA RFLP analysis revealed unique B. dolosa restriction patterns. In addition, new 16S rDNA- and recA-based PCR assays allowed its specific identification.