Mitosis in Giardia is poorly understood. Until today, it is still controversial whether Giardia divides with a mirror-image symmetry (ventral-ventral or dorsal-dorsal) or in a dorsal-ventral mode. Here, we report the different modes by which cytokinesis takes place in Giardia lamblia. To determine how Giardia divides, video microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, semi-thick sections and freeze-fracture replicas were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Between 12 and 15% of the cells cultivated for 24-48 h were found in the process of division. Three types of cytokinesis were found: (1) ventral-ventral, where the discs face each other; (2) dorsal-dorsal, where the discs are in opposite directions; and (3) ventral-dorsal. Giardia divides with mirror-image symmetry either in ventral-ventral or dorsal-dorsal modes. During ventral-ventral type of division, Giardia becomes detached and swims freely in the culture medium, whereas, in the other modes of division, the cells can be found either adhered or swimming.