Although clinical practices evolve over time, the translation of specific research evidence into clinical practice is unpredictable, inconsistent, and complex. In this paper, we use examples from chronic cardiovascular conditions to: 1). highlight two types of care gaps; 2). describe the most common potential barriers to the application of evidence into clinical care; and 3). outline which of the strategies for translating evidence into clinical care have been shown to be ineffective, which strategies have been shown to be effective and to describe some untested approaches that hold promise.