Objectives: Although some studies have reported that the arginine isoform on codon 72 of p53 increases the susceptibility to invasive cervical cancer, such data remain controversial. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship.
Methods: Our data sources consisted of a MEDLINE search of the literature published before December 2002, bibliography review, and expert consultation. Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Information on sample size, study design, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and method of genotype determination was abstracted by two reviewers using a standardized protocol. The overall odds ratio (OR) of the p53 gene on invasive cervical cancer was estimated using the Mantel-Haenzel method.
Results: The overall OR (95% confidence interval) for cervical cancer among those with the homozygous mutant (Arg/Arg) was 1.2 (1.1-1.3, P=0.001) compared with those with the heterozygous mutant (Arg/Pro). By a cellular type of cervical cancer, the overall OR among those with Arg/Arg was statistically significant in adenocarcinomas (1.7, 1.1-2.6, P=0.024), but not in squamous cell carcinomas (1.1, 0.9-1.2, P=0.960), compared with Pro/Pro. Compared with Arg/Pro, the OR among those with Arg/Arg was statistically significant in HPV types 16 (1,5, 1.2-2.0, P=0.002).
Conclusions: Overall, the p53 gene was associated with increased risk for invasive cervical cancer. However, the risk varied by country, cellular, and HPV type.