DNA microarrays and two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis were utilized to analyze the global effect of bile on transcription and protein synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Two bile-regulated proteins, YciF and PagC, were identified by 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry fingerprinting. The operon yciGFE-katN demonstrated increased transcriptional activity in the presence of bile. While this operon has previously been shown to be RpoS-regulated, data from this study suggested that yciGFE-katN is regulated by bile independent of RpoS. The PhoP-PhoQ-regulated PagC is decreased in the presence of bile. Characterization of the untranslated leader of pagC demonstrated that a 97-bp region is necessary for the bile-mediated repression of this promoter. Analysis of data from the DNA microarray revealed an effect of bile on important global mechanistic pathways in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Genes involved in type III secretion-mediated invasion of epithelial cells demonstrated an overall repression of transcription in the presence of bile, corroborating previously reported data from this laboratory [Infect. Immun. 68 (2000) 6763]. In addition, bile-mediated transcriptional repression of genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis and motility was observed. These data further demonstrate that bile is an important environmental signal sensed by Salmonella spp. and that bile plays a role in regulating bacterial gene expression in multiple virulence-associated pathways.