The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) is involved in regulation of fatty acid oxidation, skeletal muscle fiber type specificity, and gluconeogenesis. The prevalent Gly482Ser variant in PGC-1 was shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes in some but not all studies. Moreover, it is unclear whether it influences prediabetic subphenotypes in non-diabetic populations. We studied the association of this variant with glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test), insulin sensitivity (euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp) of glucose disposal and antilipolysis, insulin secretion (hyperglycemic clamp, 10 mM), maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max, bicycle ergometry), and intramyocellular lipids (magnetic resonance spectroscopy, tibialis and soleus muscle) in a normal glucose tolerant German cohort (n = 423) and a normal (n = 65) and impaired glucose tolerant (n = 94) cohort from the Netherlands. No statistically significant association with an examined phenotype was detected in any of the study cohorts. Specifically, VO(2)max and the soleus-to-tibialis ratio of intramyocellular lipid contents as a surrogate parameter of fiber type specificity was not different between the genotype groups. We conclude, that the Gly482Ser variant in PGC-1 is not associated with diabetes-related traits or skeletal muscle fiber type composition in a non-diabetic German and Dutch population.