Apactin is involved in remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

Eur J Cell Biol. 2004 Mar;83(2):79-89. doi: 10.1078/0171-9335-00361.


Apactin is an 80-kDa type I membrane glycoprotein derived from pro-Muclin, a precursor that also gives rise to the zymogen granule protein Muclin. Previous work showed that apactin is efficiently removed from the regulated secretory pathway and targeted to the actin-rich apical plasma membrane of the pancreatic acinar cell. The cytosolic tail (C-Tail) of apactin consists of 16 amino acids, has Thr casein kinase II and Ser protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, and a C-terminal PDZ-binding domain. Secretory stimulation of acinar cells causes a decrease in Thr phosphorylation and an increase in Ser phosphorylation of apactin. Fusion peptides of the C-Tail domain pulldown actin, ezrin, and EBP50/NHERF in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. HIV TAT-C-Tail fusion peptides were used as dominant negative constructs on living pancreatic cells to study effects on the actin cytoskeleton. During secretory stimulation, TAT-C-Tail-Thr/Asp phosphomimetic peptide caused an increase in actin-coated zymogen granules at the apical surface, while TAT-C-Tail-S/D phosphomimetic peptide caused a broadening of the actin cytoskeleton. These data indicate that stimulation-mediated Thr dephosphorylation allows decreased association of apactin with EBP50/NHERF and fosters actin remodeling to coat zymogen granules. Stimulation-mediated Ser phosphorylation increases apactin association with the actin cytoskeleton, maintaining tight bundling of actin microfilaments at the apical surface. Thus, apactin is involved in remodeling the apical cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis in a manner controlled by phosphorylation of the apactin C-Tail.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Actins / chemistry
  • Actins / metabolism*
  • Actins / physiology
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Cytoskeleton / metabolism*
  • Cytosol / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Exocytosis*
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Glycoproteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Molecular Weight
  • Mucins
  • Pancreas / cytology
  • Phalloidine / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins


  • Actins
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Dmbt1 protein, mouse
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mucins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ezrin
  • Phalloidine
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate