The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiates an innate immune response after recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Evidence is accumulating that TLRs, and particularly TLR4, are important players in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease. Not only exogenous ligands but also endogenous ligands that are expressed during arterial injury are recognized by TLR4. Mouse knockout studies and epidemiological studies of human TLR4 polymorphisms have demonstrated that the TLR4 might play a role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. This review will summarize the latest progression in research on the role of TLR4 in arterial occlusive disease In addition, the potential of intervention in TLR4 signalling to influence progression of atherosclerotic disease is discussed.