Microwave-supported preparation of (68)Ga bioconjugates with high specific radioactivity

Bioconjug Chem. 2004 May-Jun;15(3):554-60. doi: 10.1021/bc030078f.


The generator-produced positron-emitting (68)Ga (T(1/2) = 68 min) is of potential interest for clinical PET. (68)Ga as a metallic cation is suitable for complexation reactions with chelators, naked or conjugated, with peptides or other macromolecules. Large (68)Ga generator eluate volumes, metal traces from the generator column material, or reaction reagents, however, disturb a fast, reliable, and quantitative labeling procedure. In this paper we describe a simple technique, based on anion exchange, aiming first, to increase the (68)Ga concentration, second to purify it from competing impurities, and third to obtain a fast and quantitative (68)Ga-labeled peptide conjugate that can be applied in humans without further purification. Within 5 min one can obtain from the original 6 mL generator eluate a 200 microL (68)Ga preparation (volume reduction by a factor 30) that is suitable for direct and quantitative labeling of peptide conjugates. DOTATOC (DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide, DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) was used as a test tracer for comparing the labeling properties of the different (68)Ga preparations. In combination with microwave heating, peptide conjugates of 0.5-1 nmol quantities could be labeled within 10 min with the full (68)Ga activity of a generator. Further purification of the (68)Ga-labeled peptide conjugate was no longer required since the nuclide incorporation was quantitative. The specific radioactivity (with respect to the peptide) was improved by a factor approximately 100 compared to the previously applied techniques using the original generator eluate. The commercial (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator from Obninsk in combination with this system for purification and concentration with an integrated microwave-supported labeling technology resulted in a kitlike technology for (68)Ga-tracer production. The first automated prototype using this technology is being tested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chelating Agents / chemistry
  • Gallium Radioisotopes / chemistry*
  • Germanium / chemistry
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring / chemistry
  • Isotope Labeling
  • Microwaves*
  • Octreotide / analogs & derivatives*
  • Octreotide / chemistry
  • Peptides / chemical synthesis
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Radioisotopes / chemistry
  • Time Factors


  • Chelating Agents
  • Gallium Radioisotopes
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring
  • Peptides
  • Radioisotopes
  • Germanium
  • 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid
  • Octreotide
  • Edotreotide