Effect of zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004 Jan-Mar;29(1):25-9. doi: 10.1007/BF03190570.


Acetaminophen, a common antipyretic-analgesic OTC drug is often administered orally anytime of the day with water or beverages irrespective of possible interactions. Zobo drink, is a sweetened water extract of the dried calyx of Hibiscus Sabdariffa. This work is designed to investigate the effect of zobo drink on an oral dose of acetaminophen. Six healthy male volunteers, ages 28.50 +/- 1.76 years, weighing 62.67 +/- 1.67kg participated in the study. The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phases an oral dose of acetaminophen (1g) was administered to the volunteers and in the second phases, zobo drink was ingested by the volunteers 1.30 h prior the administration of acetaminophen (1g). Acetaminophen concentration in plasma was determined using a validated spectrophotometric method. Pharmacokinetic values obtained were found to be in similar ranges as those previously reported. The absorption parameters t1/2a, Ka, Tmax, Cmax and AUC0-alpha showed no statistically significant changes (p>0.05) after the administration of zobo. There were however statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in Kbeta and t1/2beta of acetaminophen when administered after the zobo drink. This also resulted in 11.69% increase in ClT.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / pharmacokinetics*
  • Adult
  • Beverages*
  • Food-Drug Interactions / physiology
  • Hibiscus*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacokinetics
  • Water / metabolism


  • Plant Extracts
  • Water
  • Acetaminophen