Sulfolipid-immobilizing protein 1 (SLIP1) is a germ cell plasma membrane protein that binds specifically to sulfogalactosylglycerolipid, a sulfoglycolipid found preferentially in mammalian male germ cells (Lingwood, Can. J. Biochem. Cell. Biol. 63:1077-1085, 1985b). SLIP1 in mouse and rat sperm exists on the periacrosomal membrane, where sperm initially bind to eggs. Using the in vitro mouse sperm-egg binding assay with in vitro-capacitated sperm, we obtained results previously suggesting that sperm SLIP1 is involved in mouse sperm-zona pellucida interaction. In this study, using the in vitro sperm-egg binding assay, we showed that SLIP1 in uterine sperm was similarly engaged in this process. Involvement of mouse sperm SLIP1 was also shown to be important in the in vivo fertilization process. Superovulated females inseminated with caudal epidididymal and vas deferens sperm preexposed to anti-SLIP1 IgG yielded only 20% fertilized zygotes, while 80% fertilization was observed in females inseminated with sperm preincubated with preimmune serum IgG. The lower fertilization rate was not due to changes in the sperm capacitation rate as assessed by chlortetracycline staining.