Photodynamic therapy of established prostatic adenocarcinoma with TOOKAD: a biphasic apparent diffusion coefficient change as potential early MRI response marker

Neoplasia. May-Jun 2004;6(3):224-33. doi: 10.1593/neo.3352.


The goal of this study was to examine the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for the assessment of early progression of photodamage induced by Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (TOOKAD)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT). TOOKAD is a novel second-generation photosensitizer for PDT of solid tumors developed in our laboratory and presently under clinical trials for prostate cancer (PC) therapy. Using the subcutaneous human prostate adenocarcinoma WISH-PC14 xenografts in nude mice as a model, a unique biphasic change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was observed within the first 24 hours post-PDT, with initial decrease followed by an increase in ADC. Using DW-MRI, this phenomenon enables the detection of successful tumor response to PDT within 7 hours posttreatment. This process was validated by direct, histological, and immunohistochemical examinations and also by evaluation of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels that decreased significantly already 7 hours posttreatment. In vitro studies of multicellular cell spheroids confirmed a PDT-induced decrease in ADC, suggesting that lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly contributes to ADC decline observed after PDT. These results demonstrate that TOOKAD-based PDT successfully eradicates prostate adenocarcinoma xenografts and suggests DW-MRI to be useful for the detection of early tumor response and treatment outcome in the clinical setting.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy*
  • Adenocarcinoma / metabolism
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Animals
  • Bacteriochlorophylls / therapeutic use*
  • Diffusion
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Photochemotherapy*
  • Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Bacteriochlorophylls
  • Photosensitizing Agents
  • palladium-bacteriopheophorbide