A closed-loop theory of motor learning

J Mot Behav. 1971 Jun;3(2):111-49. doi: 10.1080/00222895.1971.10734898.


Following a discussion of the meaning of the term "skills" and a review of historical influences on their learning, a closed-loop theory for learning simple movements is presented. Empirical generalizations from the literature are stated, and the theory is used to explain them. The generalizations are of 2 classes: learning through the application of knowledge of results, and the effects of withdrawing knowledge of results.