This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of anidulafungin, a novel echinocandin, in patients with invasive candidiasis, including candidemia. A total of 123 eligible patients were randomized to one of three intravenous regimens, 50, 75, or 100 mg once daily. Treatment continued for 2 weeks beyond resolution or improvement of signs and symptoms. The primary efficacy criterion was a successful global response rate (i.e., clinical and microbiological success) in the evaluable population at the follow-up (FU) visit, 2 weeks after end of therapy (EOT). One hundred twenty (120) patients received at least one dose of anidulafungin; 68 were evaluable. Review of adverse events and laboratory data indicated no dose response for safety parameters. Non-albicans Candida species accounted for approximately one-half of all isolates. Success rates at EOT were 84, 90, and 89% in the 50-, 75-, and 100-mg groups, respectively. At FU, the success rates were 72, 85, and 83%. Phase 3 studies of anidulafungin for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and candidemia are warranted.