Primary HIV type 1 infection

Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1447-53. doi: 10.1086/420745. Epub 2004 Apr 30.


Emerging evidence suggests that early events in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may play a critical role in determining disease progression. Although there is limited evidence on which to base medical decisions, the diagnosis and treatment of acute HIV-1 infection may have virologic, immunologic, and clinical benefits. In addition, rapid diagnosis of infection may prevent unknowing transmission of HIV-1 during a period of high-level viremia. We review the basic principles of primary HIV-1 infection, clinical and diagnostic markers of acute seroconversion, approaches to management, and new therapeutic strategies.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Disease Progression
  • HIV Infections* / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / immunology
  • HIV Infections* / transmission
  • HIV Seropositivity / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Viremia


  • Anti-HIV Agents